INTRODUCTION Full essay:
This essay explores a significant query: To what extent may our scientific knowledge of systems not containing humans (or involving direct human interference during the interval studied) NOT APPLY to our knowledge gained from the “scientific” study of systems with humans as primary components and/or participants? Here I offer, for consideration, four propositions. In sequence, each is more speculative. Although my intent here is to present the first proposition, which can have immediate application, I present the others to indicate how far our scientific understanding may change in the future.